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Dry Hopping My Hazy IPA

 

I added my first round of dry hops to my new Hazy – New England style IPA.  As opposed to adding the hops to the beer after the fermentation has completed which is typically for a West Coast style IPA, with a Hazy you add it early in the fermentation; in this case after 3 days.  I will do a second round of dry hopping at day 7 of the fermentation as well. At this point I added 2 ounces of Mosaic hops and 1 ounce of Citra hops.  The fermentation chamber is smelling incredible to say the least!

How to Dry Hop Beer and Homebrew

 

How to Dry Hop Beer

How to Dry Hop Beer

 

Dry hopping your beer is one of the easiest ways to make a good beer great and is supper simple to do!  At this point I dry hop any Pale Ale or IPA that I brew. It does not make the beer more bitter but instead gives the impression of hoppyness and freshness with fragrant hop aroma. To dry hop your beer, wait until fermenation has completed and CO2 is no longer being generated.  The reason for this is so that the escaping CO2 does not carry away the hop aroma with it because you want those odors to stay in contact with the recently fermented beer.  I use either whole hops or pellet hops for dry hopping but prefer to use whole hops if available.  Depending on the beer I will add between 2oz to 6oz per 5 gallon batch ( I typically go with 2oz, but my Pliny the Elder recipe calls for 5oz). I leave the hops in contact with the fermented beer for approximately 5-7 days and then either transfer to keg or cold crash for another 2 days.  The process is that simple and I encourage you to try it on your next hoppy beer batch.  When you pour your first pint focus on the aroma and if possible compare it to a batch of homebrew that you did not dry hop to see the difference!

 

 

Pliny the Elder All Grain Homebrewing Recipe

Pliny the Elder All Grain Homebrewing Recipe

Pliny the Elder All Grain Homebrewing Recipe

 

For anyone who is interested in brewing an all grain homebrew batch of Pliny the Elder, I have posted the recipe that I brew.  It is a great recipe and tribute to one of the most famous and hard to get Double IPA’s out there. In fact it is so hop packed that this home brewing recipe even calls for a hop addition to the mash!

 

Click here to view the Pliny the Elder Homebrewing Recipe

How to Store Hops

How to Store Hops

 

There are right and wrong ways to store your hops to keep them as fresh as possible for future brewing and dry hopping. In this blog entry, we are going to cover some best practices for preserving the quality and potency of your hops when storing them for an extended period.

 

First off, it is important to be aware that hops are constantly degrading, and at best, all we can hope to do is slow the process down. As time passes, the resins, acids, and oils in the hops break down and the potential for aroma and bittering is drastically diminished. The two greatest causes of hop degradation are temperature and exposure to oxygen.

 

 

Hop Storage

The colder you can store your hops, the better, as it will slow the rate of oxidization. Ideally, you want to store your hops in a freezer with a temperature of less than 30F. If possible, strive for a temperature closer to 20F, and do your best to make sure that the hops are vacuum sealed and free of any moisture when frozen. Oxygen is the true nemesis of hop freshness. Do your best to keep your hops properly sealed in a bag that is resistant to oxygen permeability and flushed with nitrogen. If you do not have access to a vacuum sealer, use a Ziploc bag, and remove as much oxygen out of the bag as possible.

 

If you have stored your hops for longer then 12-24 months, you will probably want to consider replacing them with some fresher hops. It is difficult to know how fresh the hops were when the supplier received and packaged them, so at that point they may already be 3 years old, and their bittering potential will be very difficult to predict. If the hops are brownish in color, and the aroma is faint or unusual, they should be discarded.

 

Northern Brewer has a great selection of well-packaged hops and I purchase most of mine from them.  You can view their selection of hops here.

 

Hops in a nitrogen purged and shielded bag that was recently purchased:

How to store home brewing hops.

How to store hops to preserve their freshness.

 

 

Reinheitsgebot

The Reinheitsgebot, also known as the German Beer Purity Law, was originally drafted in 1487 and put into law on April 23rd, 1516 in the city of Ingolstadt, in Bavaria, Germany. The original Reinheitsgebot document stated that the only ingredients that could be used in the production of Bavarian beer were water, barley, and hops. In addition to ingredient restrictions, the document also set pricing standards for the sale of beer. At the time the Reinheitsgebot was drafted, the function of yeast in brewing was not understood, and for that reason it was not listed as an acceptable ingredient in beer.

 

Resin

Hop resin is a sticky compound formed in the lupulin glands of the female hop flower. The resins of the hop flower are composed of alpha and beta acids and are chiefly responsible for the bitterness and hop aroma found in beer. Additionally, alpha acids found in the hop resins function as a mild antibiotic and work as a preservative in beer.

Head Retention

Head retention refers to a beer’s ability to retain its foamy head once the beer has been poured. In most styles of beer, a thick foamy head that does not dissipate too quickly is very desirable. The three primary factors that impact a beer’s head are the carbonation level of the beer, residual proteins that form the body of the finished beer, and isomerized humulones pulled from the hops that were added during a beer’s boil. Hops that are added during fermentation or once the beer has cooled below approximately 175° F will not isomerize and will have very little impact on head retention. A stronger or hoppier beer will tend to have better head retention because it will usually have more residual proteins and a greater amount of isomerized humulones.

 

The most common ways of enhancing a beer’s head retention are to add high alpha acid hops during the boil, utilize grains such as crystal malts or wheat, or add an adjunct such as maltodextrin to your boil. Striking the right balance is a bit of an art, as you do not want to compromise the taste of your beer or risk clarity issues by pushing too hard for good head retention.

 

Fresh Hopping

Wet hopping or fresh hopping a beer is when freshly picked\undried hops are added to a beer at some point of the brewing, fermenting, or conditioning process. These hops are typically added to the beer within a day or two of being picked to maximize the unique flavors extracted from a freshly picked hop. A fresh or wet hop is typically less predictable than a dried hop and will usually impart a lower amount of bitterness than the same weight of dry hops due to the additional moisture weight in the wet hop.

 

Below is a photo of some cascade hops nearly ready to be picked and used for fresh hopping\wet hopping.

Cascade hops ready to be used for Fresh Hopping or Wet Hopping.

Cascade hops ready to be used for fresh hopping or wet hopping.

Boil

The boil is the stage of the brewing process during which wort is boiled in the brew kettle and hops could be added. When hops are added to the boil, hop resin/alpha and beta acid isomerization occurs, which imparts bittering and hop aroma in the finished beer. A typically boil time lasts between 60 and 90 minutes. The longer the hops’ isomerization in the boiling wort, the greater the potential for bittering that exists. In addition to hop isomerization, the boil also sterilizes the wort, denaturing the enzymes that were active in the mash. The boil is also responsible for the hot break, which removes several unwanted compounds that can cause both unwanted flavors in chill haze.

 

Below is a photo of a boil kettle a few minutes after the boil was achieved.

Boil Kettle

Boil Kettle

Beta Acid

Beta acid is one of the two primary resins that are present in hops, the other being alpha acid. Although beta acid imparts only a small portion of the bitterness that alpha acid provides, it is important because, as the alpha acid bitterness breaks down over time during fermentation and storage,  beta acid creates a sharper bitterness in beer as oxidation occurs.  Unlike alpha acid, beta acid does not isomerize during the boil and is primarily responsible for the hop aroma in a beer.

 

Below is a list of commonly expected alpha and beta acid levels for different hop varieties. These are not exact and are just intended for estimation purposes:

 

Ahtanum Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5-9%, Beta Acid 5-6.5%

Amarillo Hop, Alpha Acid 6-11%, Beta Acid 6-7%

Apollo Hop, Alpha Acid 15-21%, Beta Acid 5-8%

Australian Galaxy Hop, Alpha Acid 12-14%, Beta Acid 5.5%-6.5%

Australian Helga Hop, Alpha Acid 5-6.5%, Beta Acid 4-5%

Australian Pride of Ringwood Hop, Alpha Acid 6-8.5%, Beta Acid 4.5-5.5%

Australian Stella Hop, Alpha 14-16%, Beta Acid 4.5-5.5%

Australian Super Pride Hop, Alpha Acid 13-15%, Beta Acid 6-7%

Australian Sylva Hop, Alpha Acid 4.5-7%, Beta Acid 3-5%

Australian Topaz Hop, Alpha Acid 15-18%, Beta Acid 4-5%

Bravo Hop, Alpha Acid 14-17%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Calypso Hop, Alpha Acid 12-14%, Beta Acid 5-6%

Cascade Hop, Alpha Acid 4.5%-7%, Beta Acid 4.5-7%

Centennial Hop, Alpha Acid: 9.0-12.0%, Beta Acid 3.5%-4.5%

Chinook Hop, Alpha Acid 11-13%, Beta Acid 3%-4%

Citra Hop, Alpha Acid 11-13%, Beta Acid 3.5-4.5%

Cluster Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5-9%, Beta Acid 4.5%-6%

Columbus Hop, Alpha Acid 14-16%, Beta Acid 4.5%-5.5%

Crystal Hop, Alpha Acid 2-4.5%, Beta Acid 4.5%-6.5%

Czech Saaz Hop, Alpha Acid 3-4.5%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Delta Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5-7%, Beta Acid 5.5-7%

El Dorado Hop, Alpha Acid 13.5-16%, Beta Acid 7-8%

Falconer’s Flight Hop, Alpha Acid: 10-11%, Beta Acid 4.5-5.5%

French Strisselspalt Hop, Alpha Acid 3-5.5%, Beta Acid 3-6%

Galena Hop, Alpha Acid Pellets 12-14%, Beta Acid 7-9%

German Brewer’s Gold Hop, Alpha Acid 5-9%, Beta Acid 2.5-3.5%

German Hallertau Hop, Alpha Acid 3-5%, Beta Acid 4-5.5%

German Herkules Hop, Alpha Acid 12-17%, Beta Acid 4.5-5.5%

German Hersbrucker Hop, Alpha Acid 1.5-3.5%, Beta Acid 4.5-6%

German Magnum Hop, Alpha Acid 13-15%, Beta Acid 5-7%

German Merkur Hop, Alpha Acid 12-15%, Beta Acid 5-7.5%

German Northern Brewer Hop, Alpha Acid 8-10%, Beta Acid 5-6.5%

German Opal Hop, Alpha Acid 5-8%, Beta Acid 3-5.5%

German Perle Hop, Alpha Acid 6.5-9%, Beta Acid 5-6.5%

German Saphir Hop, Alpha Acid 2-4.5%, Beta Acid 2-4.5%

German Select Hop, Alpha Acid 3-6.5%, Beta Acid 3-4.5%

German Smaragd Hop, Alpha Acid 4-6%, Beta Acid 4-5%

German Spalt Hop, Alpha Acid 4-5.5%, Beta Acid 4-5%

German Tettnang Hop, Alpha Acid 3.5-5.5%, Beta Acid 5-6%

German Tradition Hop, Alpha Acid 5-7%, Beta Acid 4-5%

Glacier Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5%-6%, Beta Acid 6-8%

Horizon Hop, Alpha Acid 11-13%, Beta Acid 6.5-8.5%

Liberty Hop, Alpha Acid 3-5%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Millennium Hop, Alpha Acid 13.5-16%, Beta Acid 4.5-5.5%

Mosaic Hop, Alpha Acid: 11.5-13.5%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Mt. Hood Hop. Alpha Acid 4-7%, Beta Acid 5-7.5%

Mt. Rainier Hop, Alpha Acid 6-8%, Beta Acid 5-7.5%

Newport Hop, Alpha Acid 12-14%; Beta Acid 7-9.5%

New Zealand Green Bullet Hop, Alpha Acid 11-14%, Beta Acid 3-6%

New Zealand Hallertau Hop, Alpha Acid 6.5-8.5%, Beta Acid 3-4%

New Zealand Motueka Hop, Alpha Acid 6.5-7.5%, Beta Acid 5-6%

New Zealand Pacific Gem Hop, Alpha Acid 13-15%, Beta Acid 7-9%

New Zealand Pacific Hallertau Hop, Alpha Acid 5-6%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Nugget Hop, Alpha Acid 9-11%, Beta Acid 4-6%

Palisade Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5-9%, Beta Acid 6-8%

Perle Hop, Alpha Acid 7-9.5%, Beta Acid 4-5%

Santiam Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5-7%, Beta Acid 6-8.5%

Simcoe Hop, Alpha Acid 12-14%, Beta Acid 4-5%

Sterling Hop, Alpha Acid 6-9%, Beta Acid 4-6%

Styrian Aurora Hop, Alpha Acid 7-9%, Beta Acid 3-4.5%

Styrian Bobek Hop, Alpha Acid 3.5-7%, Beta Acid 4-6%

Styrian Celeja Hop, Alpha Acid 3-6%, Beta Acid 2-3.5%

Styrian Goldings Hop, Alpha Acid 4.5-6%, Beta Acid 2-3%

Summit Hop, Alpha Acid 17-19%, Beta Acid 4-5%

UK Admiral Hop, Alpha Acid 13-16%, Beta Acid 4.5-6.5%

UK Bramling Cross Hop, Alpha Acid 5-7%, Beta Acid 2-3.5%

UK First Gold Hop, Alpha Acid 6-9%, Beta Acid 3-4.5%

UK Fuggle Hop, Alpha Acid 3-5%, Beta Acid 5-6.5%

UK Kent Goldings Hop, Alpha Acid 4-5.5%, Beta Acid 2-4%

UK Minton Hop, Alpha Acid 5-7.5%, Beta Acid 3.5-4.5%

UK Northdown Hop, Alpha Acid 7.5-9.5%, Beta Acid 5-6%

UK Phoenix Hop, Alpha Acid 8-12%, Beta Acid 4-6%

UK Pilgrim Hop, Alpha Acid 9-13%, Beta Acid 4.5-6%

UK Progress Hop, Alpha Acid 5-7%, Beta Acid 2-3%

UK Target Hop, Alpha Acid 8-13%, Beta Acid 4.5-6%

UK Whitbread Goldings Hop, Alpha Acid 5-8%, Beta Acid 2-4%

US Brewer’s Gold Hop, Alpha Acid 8.5-9.5%, Beta Acid 3-5%

US Fuggle Hop, Alpha Acid 4.5-5%, Beta Acid 1-2%

US Goldings Hop, Alpha Acid 4-6%, Beta Acid 2-3%

US Northern Brewer Hop, Alpha Acid 8-10%, Beta Acid 3-5%

US Saaz Hop, Alpha Acid 3-4.5%, Beta Acid 3-6%

US Tettnang Hop, Alpha Acid 3.5-6%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Vanguard Hop, Alpha Acid 5-7%, Beta Acid 5-7%

Warrior Hop, Alpha Acid 14-16%, Beta Acid 4-5.5%

Willamette Hop, Alpha Acid 4-6%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Zythos Hop, Alpha Acid 10-11%, Beta Acid 5-6%

 

Pellet Hops

Pellet Hops

Alpha Acid

Alpha acid is one of the two soft resin acids that are present in hops. The alpha acids in hops are found in the resin glands of the flowers, and they are the primary source of the hop bitterness. In addition to their bittering properties, alpha acids also act as preservatives in beer. When heated in the brewing process, alpha acids are isomerized and form iso-alpha acids. The amount of time that the alpha acid is subjected to the boil determines the degree of isomerization that occurs and the amount of bitter flavoring that is  produced in the beer.

 

At a certain point, the boiling begins to have significantly diminished returns on the isomerization of the alpha acid and becomes ineffective for creating additional bitterness in the beer. Typically that occurs after 60 to 90 minutes of the hop being added to the heated wort. The isomerization process occurs when the wort is heated above approximately 175 F. The quantity of alpha acid present in a hop will determine the hops bittering potential. Alpha acid percentages vary dramatically between the different varieties of hops and are impacted by a multitude of outside factors such as storage packaging, age of the hop, storage temperature, oxidization, drying method, and growing conditions.

 

The most common alpha acids are humulone, adhumulone, cohumulone, posthumulone, and prehumulone.

 

Below is a list of commonly expected alpha acid levels for different hop varieties. These are not exact and are just intended for estimation purposes:

Ahtanum Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5-9%, Beta Acid 5-6.5%

Amarillo Hop, Alpha Acid 6-11%, Beta Acid 6-7%

Apollo Hop, Alpha Acid 15-21%, Beta Acid 5-8%

Australian Galaxy Hop, Alpha Acid 12-14%, Beta Acid 5.5%-6.5%

Australian Helga Hop, Alpha Acid 5-6.5%, Beta Acid 4-5%

Australian Pride of Ringwood Hop, Alpha Acid 6-8.5%, Beta Acid 4.5-5.5%

Austrailian Stella Hop, Alpha 14-16%, Beta Acid 4.5-5.5%

Australian Super Pride Hop, Alpha Acid 13-15%, Beta Acid 6-7%

Australian Sylva Hop, Alpha Acid 4.5-7%, Beta Acid 3-5%

Australian Topaz Hop, Alpha Acid 15-18%, Beta Acid 4-5%

Bravo Hop, Alpha Acid 14-17%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Calypso Hop, Alpha Acid 12-14%, Beta Acid 5-6%

Cascade Hop, Alpha Acid 4.5%-7%, Beta Acid 4.5-7%

Centennial Hop, Alpha Acid: 9.0-12.0%, Beta Acid 3.5%-4.5%

Chinook Hop, Alpha Acid 11-13%, Beta Acid 3%-4%

Citra Hop, Alpha Acid 11-13%, Beta Acid 3.5-4.5%

Cluster Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5-9%, Beta Acid 4.5%-6%

Columbus Hop, Alpha Acid 14-16%, Beta Acid 4.5%-5.5%

Crystal Hop, Alpha Acid 2-4.5%, Beta Acid 4.5%-6.5%

Czech Saaz Hop, Alpha Acid 3-4.5%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Delta Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5-7%, Beta Acid 5.5-7%

El Dorado Hop, Alpha Acid 13.5-16%, Beta Acid 7-8%

Falconer’s Flight Hop, Alpha Acid: 10-11%, Beta Acid 4.5-5.5%

French Strisselspalt Hop, Alpha Acid 3-5.5%, Beta Acid 3-6%

Galena Hop, Alpha Acid Pellets 12-14%, Beta Acid 7-9%

German Brewer’s Gold Hop, Alpha Acid 5-9%, Beta Acid 2.5-3.5%

German Hallertau Hop, Alpha Acid 3-5%, Beta Acid 4-5.5%

German Herkules Hop, Alpha Acid 12-17%, Beta Acid 4.5-5.5%

German Hersbrucker Hop, Alpha Acid 1.5-3.5%, Beta Acid 4.5-6%

German Magnum Hop, Alpha Acid 13-15%, Beta Acid 5-7%

German Merkur Hop, Alpha Acid 12-15%, Beta Acid 5-7.5%

German Northern Brewer Hop, Alpha Acid 8-10%, Beta Acid 5-6.5%

German Opal Hop, Alpha Acid 5-8%, Beta Acid 3-5.5%

German Perle Hop, Alpha Acid 6.5-9%, Beta Acid 5-6.5%

German Saphir Hop, Alpha Acid 2-4.5%, Beta Acid 2-4.5%

German Select Hop, Alpha Acid 3-6.5%, Beta Acid 3-4.5%

German Smaragd Hop, Alpha Acid 4-6%, Beta Acid 4-5%

German Spalt Hop, Alpha Acid 4-5.5%, Beta Acid 4-5%

German Tettnang Hop, Alpha Acid 3.5-5.5%, Beta Acid 5-6%

German Tradition Hop, Alpha Acid 5-7%, Beta Acid 4-5%

Glacier Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5%-6%, Beta Acid 6-8%

Horizon Hop, Alpha Acid 11-13%, Beta Acid 6.5-8.5%

Liberty Hop, Alpha Acid 3-5%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Millennium Hop, Alpha Acid 13.5-16%, Beta Acid 4.5-5.5%

Mosaic Hop, Alpha Acid: 11.5-13.5%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Mt. Hood Hop. Alpha Acid 4-7%, Beta Acid 5-7.5%

Mt. Rainier Hop, Alpha Acid 6-8%, Beta Acid 5-7.5%

Newport Hop, Alpha Acid 12-14%; Beta Acid 7-9.5%

New Zealand Green Bullet Hop, Alpha Acid 11-14%, Beta Acid 3-6%

New Zealand Hallertau Hop, Alpha Acid 6.5-8.5%, Beta Acid 3-4%

New Zealand Motueka Hop, Alpha Acid 6.5-7.5%, Beta Acid 5-6%

New Zealand Pacific Gem Hop, Alpha Acid 13-15%, Beta Acid 7-9%

New Zealand Pacific Hallertau Hop, Alpha Acid 5-6%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Nugget Hop, Alpha Acid 9-11%, Beta Acid 4-6%

Palisade Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5-9%, Beta Acid 6-8%

Perle Hop, Alpha Acid 7-9.5%, Beta Acid 4-5%

Santiam Hop, Alpha Acid 5.5-7%, Beta Acid 6-8.5%

Simcoe Hop, Alpha Acid 12-14%, Beta Acid 4-5%

Sterling Hop, Alpha Acid 6-9%, Beta Acid 4-6%

Styrian Aurora Hop, Alpha Acid 7-9%, Beta Acid 3-4.5%

Styrian Bobek Hop, Alpha Acid 3.5-7%, Beta Acid 4-6%

Styrian Celeja Hop, Alpha Acid 3-6%, Beta Acid 2-3.5%

Styrian Goldings Hop, Alpha Acid 4.5-6%, Beta Acid 2-3%

Summit Hop, Alpha Acid 17-19%, Beta Acid 4-5%

UK Admiral Hop, Alpha Acid 13-16%, Beta Acid 4.5-6.5%

UK Bramling Cross Hop, Alpha Acid 5-7%, Beta Acid 2-3.5%

UK First Gold Hop, Alpha Acid 6-9%, Beta Acid 3-4.5%

UK Fuggle Hop, Alpha Acid 3-5%, Beta Acid 5-6.5%

UK Kent Goldings Hop, Alpha Acid 4-5.5%, Beta Acid 2-4%

UK Minton Hop, Alpha Acid 5-7.5%, Beta Acid 3.5-4.5%

UK Northdown Hop, Alpha Acid 7.5-9.5%, Beta Acid 5-6%

UK Phoenix Hop, Alpha Acid 8-12%, Beta Acid 4-6%

UK Pilgrim Hop, Alpha Acid 9-13%, Beta Acid 4.5-6%

UK Progress Hop, Alpha Acid 5-7%, Beta Acid 2-3%

UK Target Hop, Alpha Acid 8-13%, Beta Acid 4.5-6%

UK Whitbread Goldings Hop, Alpha Acid 5-8%, Beta Acid 2-4%

US Brewer’s Gold Hop, Alpha Acid 8.5-9.5%, Beta Acid 3-5%

US Fuggle Hop, Alpha Acid 4.5-5%, Beta Acid 1-2%

US Goldings Hop, Alpha Acid 4-6%, Beta Acid 2-3%

US Northern Brewer Hop, Alpha Acid 8-10%, Beta Acid 3-5%

US Saaz Hop, Alpha Acid 3-4.5%, Beta Acid 3-6%

US Tettnang Hop, Alpha Acid 3.5-6%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Vanguard Hop, Alpha Acid 5-7%, Beta Acid 5-7%

Warrior Hop, Alpha Acid 14-16%, Beta Acid 4-5.5%

Willamette Hop, Alpha Acid 4-6%, Beta Acid 3-4%

Zythos Hop, Alpha Acid 10-11%, Beta Acid 5-6%

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